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CHAPTER-1(Introduction to Java)                                              Bottom

 

Data Types:-

 

Primitive Data Types

 

     Primitive data types in Java can be divided into three main categories:

  • Integer types— represent signed integers (byte, short, int, long) and unsigned character values (char).
  • Floating-point types (float, double)— represent fractional signed numbers
  • Boolean type (boolean)— represent logical values either true or false.

  • Primitive data values are not objects. Each primitive data type defines the range of values in the data type, and operations on these values are defined by special operators in the language.

    Integer Types

    Range of Integer Values:-

     


    Character Types:-

    Range of Character values:-


    Floating -point Types

    Range of Floating values

    Boolean types



      Variables

    A variable stores a value of a particular type. A variable has a name, a type, and a value associated with it. In Java, variables can only store values of primitive data types and references to objects. Variables that store references to objects are called reference variables.

    Declaring Variables:-

    Variable declarations are used to specify the type and the name of variables. This implicitly determines their memory allocation and the values that can be stored in them. We show some examples of declaring variables that can store primitive values:


    char a, b, c; // a, b and c are character variables.

    double area; // area is a floating-point variable.

    boolean flag; // flag is a boolean variable.

    The first declaration above is equivalent to the following three declarations:
    char a;
    char b;
    char c;
    A declaration can also include initialization code to specify an appropriate initial value for the variable:
    int i = 10, // i is an int variable with initial value 10.
    j = 101; // j is an int variable with initial value 101.
    long big = 2147483648L; // big is a long variable with specified initial value.


    Lifetime of Variables

    Lifetime of a variable, that is, the time a variable is accessible during execution, is determined by the context in which it is declared. We distinguish between lifetime of variables in three contexts:


    Instance variables:-— members of a class and created for each object of the class. In other words, every object of the class will have its own copies of these variables, which are local to the object. The values of these variables at any given time constitute the state of the object. Instance variables exist as long as the object they belong to exists.

    Static variables:- also members of a class, but not created for any object of the class and, therefore, belong only to the class. They are created when the class is loaded at runtime, and exist as long as the class exists.

    Local variables:- (also called method variables)— declared in methods and in blocks and created for each execution of the method or block. After the execution of the method or block completes, local (non-final) variables are no longer accessible.

    Initial Values for Variables

    If no initialization is provided for a static variable either in the declaration it is initialized with the default value of its type when the class is loaded.

    Similarly, if no initialization is provided for an instance variable either in the declaration or in an block, it is initialized with the default value of its type when the class is instantiated.

    The fields of reference types are always initialized with the null reference value, if no initialization is provided.

    Example:-

    How static and instance members are initialised in a class:-

     

    public class Light {

    // Static variable
    static int counter; // Default value 0 when class is loaded.

    // Instance variables
    int noOfWatts = 100; // Explicitly set to 100.

    boolean indicator; // Implicitly set to default value false.

    String location; // Implicitly set to default value null.
    public static void main(String[] args) {

    Light bulb = new Light();

    System.out.println("Static variable counter: " + Light.counter);
    System.out.println("Instance variable noOfWatts: " + bulb.noOfWatts);
    System.out.println("Instance variable indicator: " + bulb.indicator);
    System.out.println("Instance variable location: " + bulb.location);
    return;
    }
    }


    Output from the program:-
    Static variable counter: 0
    Instance variable noOfWatts: 100
    Instance variable indicator: false
    Instance variable location: null

    Initializing Local Variables of Primitive Data Types

     

    Example:-

    public class TooSmartClass {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

    int weight = 10,Range; // Local variable
    if (weight < 10)

    Range= 1000;

    if (weight > 50)

    Range = 5000;

    if (weight >= 10)

    Range = weight*10; // Always executed.
    System.out.println("The price is: " + thePrice); // (1)
    }
    }

    Explaination:-

    In Example, the compiler complains that the local variable Range used in the println statement at (1) may not be initialized. However, it can be seen that at runtime the local variable Range will get the value 100 in the last if-statement, before it is used in the println statement. The compiler does not perform a rigorous analysis of the program in this regard. It only compiles the body of a conditional
    statement if it treat the condition to be true. The program will compile correctly if the variable is initialized in the declaration, or if an unconditional assignment is made to the variable. Replacing the declaration of the local variables in Example with the following declaration solves the problem:

    int weight = 10, Range = 0; // Both local variables initialized.


    Initializing Local Reference Variables

     

    public class VerySmartClass {
    .
    public static void main(String[] args) {

    String importantMessage; // Local reference variable

    System.out.println("The message length is: " + importantMessage.length());
    }
    }

    Explaination:-In Example, the compiler complains that the local variable importantMessage used in the println statement may not be initialized. If the variable importantMessage is set to the value null, the program will compile. However, at runtime, a NullPointerException will be thrown since the variable importantMessage will not denote any object. The golden rule is to ensure that a reference variable, whether local or not, is assigned a reference to an object before it is used, that is, ensure that it does not have the value null. The program compiles and runs if we replace the declaration with the following declaration, which creates a String value and assigns its reference to the local reference variable importantMessage:

    String importantMessage = "Initialize before use!";


    Conversions

    Unary Cast Operator: (type):-

    Java, being a strongly typed language, checks for type compatibility (i.e., checks if a type can substitute for another type in a given context) at compile time. However, some checks are only possible at runtime (for example, which type of object a reference actually denotes during execution). In cases where an operator would have incompatible operands (for example, assigning a double to an int), Java demands that a cast be used to explicitly indicate the type conversion. The cast construct has the following syntax:

    (<type>) <expression>

    The is applied to the value of the <expression>.At runtime, a cast results in a new value of <type> which best represents the value of the <expression> in the old type. We use the term casting to mean applying the cast operator for explicit type conversion.Casting can be applied to primitive values as well as references. Casting between primitive data types and reference types is not permitted. Boolean values cannot be cast to other data values, and vice versa. The reference valuel null can be cast to any reference type.



    .
    Narrowing and Widening Conversions

     

    For the primitive data types, the value of a narrower data type can be converted to a value of a broader data type without loss of information. This is called a widening primitive conversion. Widening conversions to the next broader type for primitive data types are given in Figure below. The conversions shown are transitive. For example, an int can be directly converted to a double without first having to convert it to a long and a float.

    Figure 3.1. Widening Numeric Conversions

    Converting from a broader data type to a narrower data type is called a narrowing primitive conversion, which can result in loss of magnitude information. Any conversion which is not a widening conversion according to Figure above is a narrowing conversion. Note that all conversions between char and the two integer types byte and short are considered narrowing conversions: the reason being that the conversions between the unsigned type char and the signed types byte or short can result in loss of information.
    Widening and narrowing conversions are also defined for reference types a Conversions up the inheritance hierarchy are called widening reference conversions ( upcasting). Conversions down the inheritance hierarchy are called narrowing reference conversions ( downcasting).
    Both narrowing and widening conversions can be either explicit (requiring a cast) or implicit. Widening conversions are usually done implicitly, whereas narrowing conversions typically require a cast. It is not illegal to use a cast for a widening conversion. However, the compiler will flag any conversions that require a cast.

    Example of Upcasting :-

    char i=100;

    int j;

    j = i ;    //upcasting

    Example of Downcasting:-

    int i =200;   char j=char(i);

         //The value of the i need to be converted to char in order to store in char variable

     

     



    Note :
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